Thank you to all of the delegates, chairs, and faculty who participated in ACMUN XVI! We are so excited to be hosting ACMUN XVII this year and cannot wait to see you all there, whether it be online or in person.
- What is ACMUN?
- LETTER FROM SECRETARY GENERAL
- Committee Descriptions
- Committee Topics
- Background Guides
- ZOOM LINKS
SECRETARY GENERAL - RHEA SIROMANI
Hi Everyone, my name is Rhea Siromani and I am the Secretary General for the ACMUN XVII conference! This is my third year being on the ACMUN team, and I could not be more excited for the conference this year. I was born in London, Ontario and later moved to Oakville. I then got a chance to live in London, England for two years where I was able to spend a lot of time travelling with my family, further developing my interest in global affairs. For as long as I can remember, I have been passionate about social advocacy and it has always been a dream of mine to work in the UN one day. I have been a delegate at multiple MUN conferences in past years and am fascinated with how much I am able to learn, and how innovative students can be. On behalf of the entire ACMUN team, thank you for joining ACMUN XVII. We are looking forward to seeing you in April!
CHARGE D'AFFAIRES - MEGAN MCKENZIE
Hi everyone! My name is Megan McKenzie and I am your Charges D'affaires for ACMUN XVII. This is my second year being apart of the ACMUN team and my fourth year being apart of MUN at Appleby. I am super interested in politics and MUN, I am even considering it as a career choice. I was born in Toronto and raised in Oakville. I am currently in Grade 10 and am super excited to help put on another ACMUN. My favourite part of helping put together this conference is working with others on the planning team and eventually seeing all delegates enjoy and have a fun time at the conference. I am super excited for you all to enjoy ACMUN again this year, whether online or in person I know it will be a conference for the books!
UNDERSECRETARY GENERAL OF LOGISTICS AND OPERATIONS - GRAYDON DOL
Hi delegates! My name is Graydon Dol and this year I am the Undersecretary General of Logistics and Operations for ACMUN XVII. I am absolutely thrilled for our conference this year, and thankful to be working with such an amazing ACMUN team to make this year great! In my time out of school I love playing volleyball, going bowling, learning languages, and spending time procrastinating on all of my work. I also love travelling, and I'm very lucky to have been able to travel to three different continents and even do service in some of those countries. I have been at Appleby for three years now, and I even got to attend one of the ACMUN conferences before coming here, and I know it is such an amazing experience for everyone involved. As one of the secretariats this year, I am so excited to be able to contribute to this years conference and I'm looking forward to meeting all of the delegates!
CO-UNDERSECRETARY GENERAL OF FINANCE - RAPHAEL CHOI
Hey delegates - I'm Raph, and welcome to ACMUN! I'm looking forward to the conference this year, and I'm sure you will all have a lot of fun. This year is my second with ACMUN, and I am working with a great team and a fantastic co-undersecretary general of Finance, Madhav! Besides being a conference that discusses global affairs, ACMUN also provides a wide range of opportunities and experiences to expand your view on the world. For me, I was born in Hong Kong, and live and study in Oakville. I am excited to meeting everyone, and I am sure it will be an amazing experience! See y'all there!
CO-UNDERSECRETARY GENERAL OF FINANCE - MADHAV SATIJA
Hey everyone, my name is Madhav Satija, and I am this year's co-Undersecretary General of Finance with my amazing partner, Raph! I was born in Hanover, ON, and now live in Oakville, ON. I am quite interested in business and finance, and am especially intrigued by entrepreneurship. Outside of school, I thoroughly enjoy being active, especially while playing soccer or running, being in nature, and spending time with my family and friends. I have participated in 2 ACMUN conferences, once as a delegate and once as a chair, and I can honestly say that both experiences were truly enriching, engaging, and fun!. ACMUN is a great opportunity to build confidence, learn more about relevant world issues, and work to understand perspectives on these issues that you may not have initially considered. We hope to see you all there, and that you have an amazing ACMUN experience!
UNDERSECRETARY GENERAL OF MARKETING - LAUREN ORLANDO
Hi everyone! My name is Lauren Orlando, and I am the Undersecretary General of Marketing for this year's ACMUN conference. This is my first year with ACMUN, and I'm so excited to be part of this fabulous team! To share a bit about myself, I was born and raised primarily in Toronto, Canada, but spent a few years in elementary and middle school living in Los Angeles. Now, I'm home in Toronto and spend much of my free time with my friends, family, and dogs. I look forward to learning more about ACMUN and meeting you all at the conference in April!
UNDERSECRETARY GENERAL COMMITEE AFFAIRS - ALEXANDER NING
Hi everyone! My name is Alexander Ning and I'll be your Committee Affairs Under-Secretariat for ACMUN XVII. I will also be your primary crisis director for every committee, so feel free to blame me for any of the crises sent to your committee! I was born in Mississauga, Canada and I enjoy playing piano and Indie games. Model United Nations is something I've found myself enjoying for over 6 years, both at Appleby and at conferences. My favorite committees are SPECPOL, Historical Committees, and anything with crises! This is my second year planning ACMUN and I can't wait for you all to enjoy the committees and topics I've prepared for you! Outside of MUN, you'll find me procrastinating and stressing over missed assignments.
What is ACMUN?
Appleby College Model United Nations began seventeen years ago as thirty students huddled in a music room debating world affairs on Saturdays. Over the past years it has grown into one of Canada's premier single day high school conferences, run entirely by student volunteers and attended by hundreds of students eager for high quality debate.
The organizing committee of the Appleby College Model United Nations conference is committed to delivering an experience in keeping with the international spirit of the United Nations. It aims to raise awareness of pressing global issues and to have delegates consider how they can change the world around them though being community spirited and globally responsible.
2005 – 2006 ACMUN I
2006 – 2007 ACMUN II
2007 – 2008 ACMUN III
2008 – 2009 ACMUN IV
2009 – 2010 ACMUN V
2010 – 2011 ACMUN VI
2011 – 2012 ACMUN VII
2012 – 2013 ACMUN VIII
2013 – 2014 ACMUN IX
2014 – 2015 ACMUN X
2015 – 2016 ACMUN XI
2016 – 2017 ACMUN XII
2017 – 2018 ACMUN XIII
2018 – 2019 ACMUN XIV
2019 – 2020 ACMUN XV
2020-2021 ACMUN XVI
2021-2022 ACMUN XVII
Chinezimuzo (Nezim) Mmegwa
Arthur Kwan Hung Wu
Dear Delegates, Advisors, and Esteemed Guests,
I am thrilled to welcome you all to Appleby College's seventeenth annual Model United Nations conference, ACMUN XVII. My name is Rhea Siromani and it is my honor to serve as the Secretary General for this year's conference. For the past sixteen years, ACMUN has worked diligently to create an engaging and innovative experience for our delegates. This year, ACMUN will be taking place virtually to ensure the safety of all our participants, volunteers, and secretariats.
Our theme for this year is "Strength in Diversity." As a team, we recognize that the challenges brought about by the global pandemic have further amplified the importance of coming together as a community and embracing our differences in order to overcome challenges. As such, we encourage our delegates to create and embrace the diversity of their resolutions in addressing urgent crises and persisting issues from the Venezuelan Economic and Political Refugee Crisis to Gender Inequality in South-East Asia.
In order to give our delegates the chance to explore and debate on a variety of topics, the ACMUN team has prepared 15 traditional UN committees and 2 brand new specialty committees, including the League of Nations committee and 2 joint Squid Game committees. For a more detailed description of all 18 committees and the topics for each, please check out the Committee Descriptions and Committee Topics tab. Prior to the conference, we will upload background guides for each committee to the website as well as the contact information of the chairs. Our chairs would be happy to answer any questions you may have about the topics.
As we run ACMUN virtually for the second year, the ACMUN XVII team is working hard to ensure that this year's conference will only improve upon the virtual conference held last year. Our guide to virtual MUN can be found under the Conference tab. Please familiarize yourself with the instructions on the guide, and feel free to contact us for any technological assistance. For the best experience, we strongly recommend that the delegate uses a laptop or desktop to participate in the conference.
We are thrilled to continue ACMUN's partnership with UNICEF this year. I want to thank everyone involved in making ACMUN XVII possible. I would also like to thank all of the delegates who join us for the conference and recognize the strength in diversity.
I look forward to welcoming you to ACMUN XVII in April!
Secretary General of ACMUN XVII
The regular registration deadline is February 28, 2022. Those who register by this date will be charged $15 (per delegate). Those who fail to meet this deadline can apply for late registration. The late registration deadline is March 29, 2022, and those who register for late registration will be charged $22 (per delegate). No refunds will be offered after March 29, 2022.
Note: Please include account number ST2214 when processing your payment.
If you have any questions, feel free to contact us at email@example.com.
VIRTUAL MUN GUIDE
All information regarding how the online version of ACMUN committee sessions will happen along with dress codes and rules can be found here: Virtual Mun Guide
ACMUN XVII SCHEDULE
9:00-9:05am: Video for ACMUN
9:05-9:10am: Canadian National Anthem and Indigenous Recognition
9:10-9:25am: Opening Speech from Secretary General
9:25-9:30am: Flag Ceremony
9:30-9:35am: Guest Speaker Introduction
9:35-9:55am: Guest Speaker
9:55-10:00am: House-keeping Rules and Calling ACMUN XVII in Order
Link to join: https://applebycollege.zoom.us/j/95379550857?pwd=aDNzUHhSNGZYZFdzVDNBWEdXS3ZDQT09 (Passcode: 257420)
10:15am-12:00pm: First Committee Session
1:00-3:00pm: Second Committee Session
3:15-5:00pm: Third Committee Session
5:15-5:20pm: Video for ACMUN
5:20-5:30pm: Hand Out Certificates
5:30-6:15pm: Closing and Dismissal
Link to join: https://applebycollege.zoom.us/j/92198238708?pwd=MWZEK05Vc0t0aHpiMXFHdndtQSs4dz09 (Passcode: 683305)
Awards are given to delegates by recommendation of their chair and co-chair. This means not every committee will have the same number of awards given.
A best delegate award may be given to one member of a committee who the chair and co-chair believe should be recognized for being the most prepared, knowledgeable and skilled in committee sessions. This typically means having one of the best position papers, amazing skills and knowledge in committee sessions/debates and more.
An outstanding delegate award may be given to one or two members of a committee who the chair and co-chair believe should be recognized for fantastic preparation for the conference, great debate and work within the committee sessions and an outstanding position paper. This award typically means the delegate was within the top 3 of the committee.
An honorable delegate award may be given to one or multiple members of a committee who the chair and co-chair believe should be recognized for great work and skills within the committee sessions. This may include evident detailed work and preparation for the conference, great work within committee sessions or a fantastic position paper. This award typically means the delegate was in the top 10 delegates of the committee.
Since ACMUN's inception, Appleby College's pillars of community spirit and global responsibility have remained at the heart of our core values. As a team, we are dedicated to creating a conference in which delegates have the opportunity to translate diplomacy into concrete actions. Recognizing the importance of incorporating philanthropy and service into our conference, ACMUN is delighted to inaugurate our annual initiative of philanthropic partnership during the thirteenth year of our conference.
UNICEF Canada – ACMUN XVII Official Charity Partner
ACMUN XVII is excited to announce our support for UNICEF Canada for this year’s conference! The United Nations Children's Fund is an international humanitarian organization that promotes the rights and wellbeing of every child in 190 countries and territories around the world. UNICEF Canada translates the commitment made by the Convention on the Rights of the Child into practical action, focusing special efforts on reaching the most vulnerable and excluded children, to the benefit of all children, everywhere. Through focusing on child protection, social inclusion, child survival, education, gender equality, and emergency relief, UNICEF advocates for measures to give children the best start in life.
On behalf of ACMUN and UNICEF Canada, we would like to thank you for your generous support! With our collective efforts as global citizens, we will create a brighter future with hope for our children!
|UNITED NATIONS CHILDREN'S FUND (UNICEF)||
UNITED NATIONS HIGH COMMISSIONER FOR REFUGEES (UNHCR)
|COMMISSION ON POPULATION AND DEVELOPMENT (CPD)||BEGINNER|
|UNITED NATIONS DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME (UNDP)||BEGINNER|
|AFRICAN UNION (AU)||BEGINNER|
UNITED NATIONS HUMAN RIGHTS COUNCIL (UNHRC)
|UNITED NATIONS WOMEN (UN WOMEN)||
SOCIAL, CULTURAL, AND HUMANITARIAN COMMITTEE (SOCHUM)
|WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (WHO)||INTERMEDIATE|
|OFFICE OF LEGAL AFFAIRS (OLA)||INTERMEDIATE|
|UNITED NATIONS SECURITY COUNCIL (UNSC)||ADVANCED|
ECONOMIC COMMISSION FOR LATIN AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN (ECLAC)
SPECIAL POLITICAL AND DECOLONIZATION COMMITTEE (SPECPOL)
LEAGUE OF NATIONS (1920)(LON)
United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF)
Present within 192 countries and territories, the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) is one of the world's most well-known and accessible agency in humanitarian and financial assistance. Founded in 1946, the United Nations Children's fund was initiated by the United Nations Relief Rehabilitation Administration to address immediate relief to children and parents. A primary contrast between the United Nations Children's Fund and external branches of the United Nations General Assembly is that the majority of it's income is dependent on voluntary contributions from individuals and governments. The committee is expected to arrange resolutions to cope with excessive domestic violence and the implementation of children's education in developing countries.
United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR)
Within the past 10 years, a global increase of forcibly displaced people have increased from around 30 million refugees to 80 million. As an internal-government based unit within the United Nations, The United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees is determined to ensure improved humanitarian conditions for the future of refugees and forcibly displaced people. It's willingness to assist stateless refugees was initiated in 1950, and exists in the present day in over 134 countries, building shelters, offering humanitarian aid and managing the survival of individuals worldwide. The committee is expected to create resolutions specifically implemented to decrease refugee displacement in Venezuela during it's economic and political instability, in addition to Afghanistan's endless flood of refugees occurring from its military dictatorship, and through its poor environmental conditions.
Commission on Population and Development (CPD)
As one of the 10 branches of the United Nations Economic and Social Council, the Commission on Population and Development aims to implement local, regional and national advice to integrate various policies and strategies on population and development in over 47 countries. The Commission collects and implements their analysis through growth trends, manages lifestyle necessities globally and contribute significantly to maintaining a stable population growth. Although the severity of the conflicts evaluated by the Commission on Population and Development are less apparent, it's important to consider the consequences that may occur from long-term negligence. The committee is expected to create resolutions to manage India's economic decrease from recent fertility decline in women, and reducing mortality rates in an economically-collapsed Syria.
United Nations Development Programme (UNDP)
The United Nations Development Programme manages one of the highest varieties of international issues pertaining to humanity. Working in over 170 countries, the United Nations Development Programme prioritizes the United Nations Sustainability Development Group as their public representation. They aim to continue the agenda to the completion of the 17 sustainability development goals, which are 17 unique variations of humanitarian-based issues to maintain a near-perfect world, followed by all United Nations Committees. The UNDP must represent the action needed to be taken to approach completion of these goals. The committee is expected to create resolutions to obtain the completion of goals 6 and 12. These goals regard permanent accessibility to clean water and sanitation for all, in addition to ensuring a sustainable pattern for material consumption and production.
After decades of malfunction and miscommunication within the middle-east and North Africa, the Arab League, comprised of 22 nations, manages social, economic and political issues that directly occur in the North Africa/Middle East Region. Additionally, communal management of military defense is agreed upon through all 22 nations. The Arab league represents the internal stability and control within it's industrial development, human rights and territorial affairs. It aims to settle negotiate, violent and controversial conflicts that occur frequently within their disputed territory, and approach internal stability at the most peaceful functionality possible. The committee is expected to create resolutions to obtain territorial capability in disputed Israel-Palestine regions, and bring stability to the Yemeni government.
African Union (AU)
The African Union (AU) is a continental union consisting of 55 members, which represent the countries of Africa. It has existed since 2002, acting as a replacement for the Organization of African Unity (OAU). The organization was created after African leaders came to a consensus, that in order for Africa to achieve its maximum potential in economic and social growth, there must be an increase in cooperation and integration of African states. The Constitutive Act of the African Union and the Protocol on Amendments to the Constitutive Act of the African Union are the documents that the AU outlines their goals, which include: achieving unity and solidarity between African countries, promoting peace in the continent, etc. The committee is expected to create solutions to prevent the spread of HIV and AIDS, in addition to eliminating water scarcity.
United Nations Human Rights Council (UNHCR)
The United Nations Human Rights Council (UNHRC) is an inter-governmental body existing within the United Nations and has existed since 2006. It currently consists of 47 member states, who are voted in by the UN General Assembly triennially. The members are responsible for protecting and addressing violations of human rights of individuals and groups around the world. Furthermore, the Council investigates all potential violations of human rights around the worlds, and provides their reports to bodies of the UN with more diplomatic power, specifically working closely with the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights. The committee is expected to create resolutions to resolve human rights issues pertaining to the Syrian Civil War and the Uyghur Genocide.
United Nations Women (UN Women)
United Nations Women recognizes gender inequality as an international boundless issue that branches itself into many categories of discrimination, harassment and injustice. It prioritizes it's functionality around achieving gender equality through public engagement and empowerment. Created in 2010, United Nations Women was created to represent the United Nations goals on historical progression within the status of women and the advancement of women. It aims to assist it's member states to implement standards of equality and formulate larger bonds with female individuals in it's political representation. The committee is expected to create solutions to initiate Gender equality in South-East Asia and to acknowledge the lack of education and employment for women and girls in the Middle East.
Social, Cultural and Humanitarian Committee (SOCHUM)
The Social, Cultural and Humanitarian Committee (SOCHUM) is centred around discussion of global humanitarian, social, and human rights issues, and extensively collaborates with the United Nations Human Rights Council. Other social issues reviewed by SOCHUM include promotion of women, human rights and economic disparity. Founded in 1945, it aims to allocate issues with humanitarian, social and cultural aspects into the international community to be communally addressed and established into discussion. The committee is expected to create solutions to avert inclining rates of household debt in developed nations in modernized societies, as well as combatting racism against the stateless Rohingya people of Myanmar.
World Health Organization (WHO)
The World Health Organization (WHO) is a specialized agency part of the United Nations responsible for international public health. Established in 1948, the WHO advocates for universal health care, monitors public health risks, coordinate responses to health emergencies, and promoting overall health and well-being. In an attempt to coordinate health affairs with the newly created United Nations, the WHO was formed. The organization's initial priorities were targeting malaria, tuberculosis, women and children's health, nutrition, and sanitation. Today, the organization has an abundance of public health achievements. Some of which include the eradication of smallpox, and the development of an Ebola vaccine. The committee is expected to create solutions to Covid-19 management in developing nations, in addition to enhancing rehabilitation foundations for suicide prevention.
Office Of Legal Affairs (OLA)
The Office of Legal Affairs aims to unify a combined and central legal service for all branches of the United Nations, as well as promote and maintain basic legal standards in all international committees and nations. By managing discussions and disputes with other public and private law management services located globally, the Office presents high interest in a unification of law and civility. Formulated in 1946, the office collaborates with extensive branches of the United Nations General Assembly to manage their ideal internal system of law. The committee is expected to manage topics on contemporary slavery in nations of economic and political instability, as well as the recent crime augmentation in North America.
United Nations Security Council (UNSC)
Responsible for the preservation of international peace and security, the United Nations Security Council is one of the six principle organs of the United Nations. It manages alterations to its United Nations Charter, as well as forming their own resolutions. With a total of 15 Members who are entitled to one vote each, meetings are to be called at any given time during a crisis. Under the Charter, all Member States are obligated to comply with Council decisions. Unlike other committees, the United Nations Security Council contains a veto power given to the five permanent members of the council, allowing the absolute removal of any resolution regardless of the other votes casted by other nations. Delegates will need to prevent having their resolution under risk of being vetoed by ensuring stable connections with all five permanent members. The committee is expected to create solutions to counter recent progressive North Korean nuclear armament, and peacekeeping in the Kashmir region between India and Pakistan.
Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC)
As a regional committee of the Economic and Social assemblies, the Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean aims to achieve complete assurance of and economic, social and environmental development of various nations in Latin America and the Caribbean. The committee has made significant progress in regional research and technical advice to various nations in Latin America and the Caribbean, helping the general understanding and management of various regional perspectives and concerns. Formulated in 1948, the committee is seen to be one of the most outstanding regional and territorial-based branches of economic and social development, sustaining and maintaining formality in regions of dispute and humanitarian concern. The committee is expected to create solutions to increasing a larger, international trade market for the combined economy of Latin America and the Caribbean, as well as strengthening harsh economic conditions in a national basis.
Special Political and Decolonization Committee (SPECPOL)
The Special Political and Decolonization Committee, also known as the Fourth Committee of the United Nations General Assembly, is one of the United Nations General Assembly's six main committees. With all the United Nations members eligible to join, the committee focuses on decolonization efforts, but simultaneously managing other controversial political missions, including peacekeeping, human rights, refugee relief, etc. After more territories became self-governing, the committee merged with the Seventh Committee (Special Political Committee) to form the SPECPOL. The committee has displayed immense progress and strength in political decolonization efforts, specifically within times of the late 20th century. The committee is expected to create solutions to maintain a stable political status in the Arctic and managing space debris in satellite damage.
League of Nations (1920)(LoN)
Created in January 10th 1920, the League of Nations was initiated to manage and resolve all disputes amongst nations. The committee has had mixed quantity of success with it's solution management and has struggled to maintain political stability in many disputed nations. Developed right after World War I (formally known as the Great War), the League of Nations was formulated to prevent another world war. During the committee, delegates are expected to discuss their political status in the early 1920s pertaining to mitigating violence in disputed Germany and its surrounding regions after the great war, as well as concerning the United States' withdrawal from the committee during its official initiation. Delegates will be expected to represent a sovereign member of their nation in the headquarters of Geneva, with acknowledgement that the committee will occur any significant events after the early months of 1920. As a crisis committee, delegates must also consider their feasible assets for their crises requests, as a logical and justified request must be executed for it to pass.
Combatting Domestic Violence
Domestic violence refers to any behaviour that is used to obtain or assert power in a close or "intimate" relationship. This abuse can be physical, sexual, emotional, economic, psychological, or can be warnings or assertions of potential action that can harm another person. Anyone can be a victim of domestic violence, irrespective of gender, age, or social status; however, women have been subjected to domestic violence at extremely high rates. Upon investigation, the World Health Organization have stated that close to 1 in 3 women have been subjected to "physical and/or sexual violence by an intimate partner or non-partner sexual violence or both". This violence against women and girls has escalated since the beginning of the coronavirus pandemic. Important issues to be considered may include: How can the international community collaborate in order to implement global structures and provide support to member nations to eliminate domestic violence?
Global Advocacy for Children's Education
Universal access to high-quality education is an integral facet of advancement in any given society. However, access to education contrasts around the world; although the global literacy rate reached 86% in 2015, when comparing the literacy rates of sub-Saharan African countries and the rest of the world, a large discrepancy is evident. For example, the 3 countries with the lowest literacy rates, Burkina Faso, Niger, and South Sudan, have rates of less than 30%. Moreover, school attendance can diminish drastically in countries experiencing turmoil, with children in these countries being more than twice as likely to not be attending school than countries not experiencing conflict. Finally, the COVID-19 pandemic has largely affected education, resulting in a loss of around 74 days of schooling due to closures and inadequate access to remote learning services. Key issues that may be discussed are: how can the international community work together to support nations with lower literacy rates and increased barriers to education? How can systems of education be designed and implemented to minimize the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on education of children around the world, especially when considering access to electronic devices and the internet?
Venezuelan economic and Political Refugee Crisis
The beginning of the Venezuelan presidential crisis occurred in 2019 after the National Assembly stated that the results of the May 2018 election were invalid, leading to the declaration of Juan Guaido to be the acting president. However, the economic instability goes back further to Hugo Chavez's reign where his attempted price caps of basic goods caused eventual shortages due to businesses no longer generating profit. This hyperinflation of necessities has affected the low-socioeconomic class of Venezuela the most causing one of the largest humanitarian displacement crisis. This increased emigration of the Venezuelan population has only contributed to their inability to escape their economic fall. Many of the countries who have taken in these refugees are within Latin America including Peru, Colombia, and Brazil. How may the committee balance the amount of refugees fleeing to Latin American countries and the support they will receive upon taking in said refugees?
Afghanistan Refugee Crisis
Since the early 2000's, the U.S. government's objective infiltrating Afghanistan aimed to dismantle the Islamic fundamentalist group, the Taliban. The Taliban imposed stringent social strictures including an opposition surrounding girl's education and multiple violation of human rights. On May 15th, 2021,The Taliban regained control of the country again resulting in nearly 240,000 people in Afghanistan to be internally displaced. This displacement being due to a deteriorating security and governmental situation. Internally, Afghanistan is facing an ongoing drought as well as severe food insecurity and rising food prices. What can be done to minimize internal displacement as well as what can be done to aid countries taking in external refugees?
The Economic Impact from the Indian Fertility Decline
India has seen a downwards trend in fertility rates over the past 2 decades, currently averaging 2.20 children per woman, lowest numbers seen in India ever. This decline is accredited largely in part to the increase in literacy, women's status, industrialization, urbanization and family planning education. Although this decline positively impacts the issue of overpopulation, eventually the country will see a decline in the working-age population, which becomes an issue as it is due to the large population base of India that companies invest in their growth markets. How may India shift their economy to accommodate the growing elderly population, whilst still moving away from relying heavily on their growth market?
Reducing High Mortality Rates in Syria
Syria is currently facing some of the highest morality rates in the world, even as one of the fastest growing nations in the world. In 2019, 8 out of the 10 largest causes for deaths in Syria were diseases, with 7 being non-communicable diseases. A large portion making up the high mortality rates in Syria is conflict related violent deaths caused by shelling/airstrikes. In addition to this a large amount of mortality is caused by widespread collapse of medical and public health services. Affected areas have caused infectious disease outbreaks and non-communicable diseases. Taking this information into account, in which ways can Syria move forwards to reduce these high numbers of mortality? How can nations collaborate to improve the systems and practices related to healthcare in Syria, while preventing economic dependence?
Achieving the Completion of Sustainability Goal 6: Clean Water and Sanitation
The world is currently not expected to achieve the completion of Goal 6. Billions of people worldwide are still encountering high inaccessibility to proper sanitary conditions and water in a variety of developing nations. One in every three individuals still lack basic sanitation and handwashing facilities with its amenities, and limited rates of progress are displayed through visual and statistical observations. In addition, many water-related ecosystems have been heavily damaged from unprotected water filtration, disregarded hand-pollution and waste dumping. Not only does this mitigate the committee's past limited progress but affects other non-water related sustainability goals. The committee must ensure that an equitable source of water is distributed for all citizens within the next eight years, and prevent any future lackluster major polluting occurrences in various water sources. How may the committee balance their prioritizations amongst water sanitation and how can proper funding and sourcing be ensured?
Achieving the Completion of Sustainability Goal 12: Responsible Consumption and Production
The three main planetary causes found on earth, climate, biodiversity and pollution, all stem from an unsustainable quantity of material production and consumption. Commonly witnessed in local societies in developed and modernized regions, a generalized rationed distribution of resource consumption to production has not been of major concern to individuals in many developed nations. One main cause of this is included in the lack of societal engagement and open-awareness in statistical observations. With every individual recycling only about 15% of the initial utilisation, an intensive deficiency in resource and its management will be severely impactful to not only the modern world, but to many developing nations as well. In connection to modern day waste, the intensive production has not only increased non-sustainable resource reliability in developing nations but has inflated many environmental and economic-based functionalities of various developing nations. How may the committee manage their necessitating of decreasing non-sustainable resource reliance in both developed and developing nations?
The Israel-Palestine conflict is an ongoing conflict, which began over 54 years ago with the Israeli occupation of the West Bank and the Gaza Strip. Both groups (Israel and Palestine) lay claim on the land previously mentioned. The primary stakeholders are the Israelis and Palestinians inhabiting the West Bank. However, due to the extent of the issue, countries within the Middle East as well as North Africa, are also direct stakeholders. Furthermore, the majority of the countries within the UN are secondary stakeholders within the issue. One vital thing to consider is which countries support which side?
Yemeni Civil War
The Yemeni Civil War, is an ongoing civil war that had started in 2014. It is being mainly fought by the Yemeni government, led by Abdrabbuh Mansur Hadi, and Houthi armed troops. Both of these groups lay claim of governance over Yemen. The primary stakeholders are those currently living within Yemen. The secondary stakeholders include the countries of the Middle East and North Africa, as this can affect trade and diplomatic interactions between these countries.
HIV and AIDS
In the 1980's the HIV virus began spreading throughout the United States, which caused the syndrome Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and had become a threat to public health by the late 1980's. The primary groups affected by the virus were gay men, intravenous drug users, immigrants, and racial minorities, which many claim it is the reason why the American government did little to address the epidemic. In most of Africa, homosexuality was and still is a criminal act, meaning many people hid their sexuality, therefore, reaching the population with lifesaving education and antiretrovirals was near impossible. Public policy focused on treatment options and a lack of trained healthcare professionals made it difficult to administer the medications that had the potential to slow the rate of HIV infection in these countries. By 2003, nearly 40% of Botswana's adult population was infected. How could these nations have approached the problem differently and what other solutions could they have provided to slow the rate of infection of HIV?
Although 70% of our planet is covered in water, only 3% of it is fresh water, 2/3 of which is tucked away in frozen glaciers. As a result, approximately 1.1 billion people worldwide lack access to clean water, and 2.7 billion people find water scarce for at least one month of the year. Due to a lack of access to fresh water, people will often resort to using contaminated water, exposing themselves to diseases such as cholera, typhoid fever, and other water-borne illnesses. African countries are facing both economic and physical water scarcity. Economically, due to the institutional failings that include lack of planning, investment, and infrastructure, and physically, due to climate change (e.g. droughts and changes in weather patterns). It is predicted that by 2025, close to 230 million Africans will be facing water scarcity. What actions can these nations take in order to eliminate water scarcity?
Syrian Civil War
In March 2011 the Syria's government, led by President Bashar al-Assad, faced challenges to his authority and government when pro-democracy protests erupted throughout the country. The protesters insisted an end to the authoritarian practices of the Assad regime. This regime has been in place since 1971. The Syrian government used violence to suppress demonstrations, making extensive use of police, military, and paramilitary forces. Opposition militias began to form in 2011, and by 2012 the conflict had expanded into a full-fledged civil war. Many countries including the UN, United States of America, and Saudi Arabia etc. were critical Assad crackdowns. While countries like Russia, China, and Iran backed Assads government. The Syrian Civil war left 13.4 million people in need of humanitarian and protection assistance in Syria and 6.7 million Syrians have been displaced within Syria and many have fled to Lebanon, Turkey, Jordan and beyond. It has been almost 11 years since the Civil War started, how can we find a solution to help the Syrians who have been forcibly displaced?
The crime of genocide, according to the UN is defined as any of the following acts committed with intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnic, racial or religious group, as such: a. Killing members of the group; b. Causing serious bodily or mental harm to members of the group; c. Deliberately inflicting on the group conditions of life calculated to bring about its physical destruction in whole or in part; d. Imposing measures intended to prevent births within the group; e. Forcibly transferring children of the group to another group. Uyghurs are a Turkic ethnic group native to Xinjiang, China. China has been accused of committing human rights crimes and genocide. These crimes are committed in Xinjiang against the Uyghur people who are mostly Muslim. Many human rights groups believe more than one to three million Uyghurs have been placed in detention camps against their will. The state calls these camps “re-education camps”, and sentence thousands of Uyghurs to prison. Evidence has also shown that the Uyghurs are being used as forced labour and women have been forced to become sterile. Former camp detainees have also alleged that they were tortured and sexually abused. China also claims these “re-educational camps” are in place to help stop separatism and Islamist militancy in Xinjiang. At the end of 2021 the United Kingdom, Canada, the United States, and Australia announced they are putting into place a diplomatic boycott on the winter Olympics hosted in China, due to the concerns of human rights abuses.
Gender Inequality in South-East Asia
Gender inequality is the social phenomenon in which men and women are treated unequally and discriminatorily. Generally, gender inequality arises from differences in biology and psychology. However, in Southeast Asia, social norms and patriarchal values are the primary causes of gender inequality. In fact, in all Southeast Asian countries, these norms and values tend to privilege males to have access to opportunities and resources. As a result, gender equality is severe in these nations. For instance, in India, women are often forced to abort a female fetus as during marriage, males typically carry on the surname of a family. More importantly, gender inequality generates a huge disparity and disadvantages to women. On average, only 35% of senior executive jobs are filled by women in Southeast Asia. Additionally, the World Economic Forum predicts that it will take Southeast Asia 195.1 years, nearly 2 centuries, to close the gender gap. Plus, 75% of men are in the workforce while only 50% of women are. This issue becomes even more serious as the coronavirus pandemic continues.
Lack of Education and Employment in the Middle East for Women and Girls
Similarly, this issue is extremely pressing in the Middle East. In the Middle East, social norms tend to cause females to drop out before receiving a high level of education, or disadvantages simply prevent them from having access to education and schools. Females in the bottom 20% of society wealth-wise attend school for an average of 1.9 years. 50% of females in rural areas also do not attend primary school. Education is key in empowering women both socially and economically. Quality education opens up opportunities for women in society. How do we ensure that education is available to all in the Middle East? How do we then use education to combat and mitigate gender inequality?
Household Debt in Developed Nations
Household debt is a consumer's total debt within a household. In developed nations, debt has doubled in less than a decade. The International Monetary Fund and World Bank have both warned of the risks of a new debt crisis and have been urging private sector creditors to join governments and multilateral creditors in coming up with a comprehensive relief package. An increase in household debt in developed nations can create lower economic growth. This provides a larger issue for countries particularly dependent on trade. Higher debt results in more consumption by households and a larger share of economic output coming from consumption. At the same time, this results in the country running a larger current account deficit with the rest of the world as imports increase, with consumption goods making up a larger share of those imports.
Racism in Myanmar
Racism has been an ongoing issue within Myanmar. Specifically racism against the Muslim Rohingya people, who have been subjected to mass persecutions and killings at the hands of the Burmese military. As a result of this, over a million Rohingya have had to flee to other countries, mostly within South Asia, in countries such as Bangladesh, which actually has the world's largest refugee camp due to this issue. Already, various agencies have accused the Burmese military of ethnic cleansing and genocide. The primary stakeholders are the Rohingya people within Myanmar, who are victims of genocide and socio-economic displacement. The secondary stakeholders are the countries which host the refugees displaced via this issue, such as the previously mentioned Bangladesh, since a mass influx of refugees affects the economies and cultures of these countries. One question to ask is how can the United Nations help control how the Burmese military treat the Rohingya people within Myanmar?
COVID-19 Management in Developing Nations
COVID-19s management in developing nations is of the utmost importance today. While the developed world continues to move on from the pandemic, with vaccines allowing some resemblance of normal in nations. However, developing nation are still weathering the pandemic with heavy losses. This is in part due to their limited access to vaccines. This continuing pandemic has negatively impacted thousands of disadvantaged people throughout the world. Children in developing nations, specifically those in rural areas have dealt with incredible learning disruptions, while their parents have faced job insecurity, the pandemic has led to incredible job losses and in developing countries this has been magnified. This has more severely impacted women, young workers and above all uneducated workers. With the pandemic seemingly still ravaging developing countries much needs to be done to ensure those within these nations return tp the same resemblance of normal as many of those in developing nations have witnessed over the past year. Biggest stakeholders include developing nations such as Ethiopia and Libya along with major world powers, who have the ability to aid developing nations such as Canada, USA and the UK. Questions to consider include, Are vaccines the key to aiding developing nations in beating this pandemic? How can vaccines be equally distributed in developing countries? How can the world help those in developing countries who have been devastated by the pandemic regain their "normal"?
Creating a Foundation for Suicide Prevention
According to the World Health Organization, approximately 703,000 people commit suicide annually, along with countless amounts of attempted suicides. Suicide has long lasting effects on both the personal and societal level, as in 2019 suicide was the leading cause of death between 15-29 year-olds around the world. The primary stakeholders would be the people who commit/attempt suicide. These people are not restricted to certain countries, as suicide is a prevalent problems all over the globe. As a fact, 77% of suicides occur in periphery and semi-periphery countries. Moreover, people which have mental disorders (especially depression and drug abuse disorders), have been through traumatic experiences, and/or have been discriminated against are particularly vulnerable to suicide. The secondary stake holders would be people surrounding victims of (attempted) suicides, as there is trauma associated with this event on those people. Lastly, societies in which suicide is a major issue would be fundamentally affected by this, as if many people, specifically of a certain age group, are committing suicide, there could be socioeconomic consequences, such as causing demographic imbalances and lack of a workforce. Due to the complexity of the given issue, it is very difficult to come to a concrete solution to it. So, from what perspective and how would this issue be mitigated or even solved.
Contemporary Slavery in Politically Unstable Nations
Contemporary labour includes but is not limited to forced labour, debt bondage, children working in slavery or slavery-like conditions, domestic servitude, sexual slavery, and forced marriage. As a legally permitted labour system, traditional slavery has been abolished everywhere, but it has not been completely eradicated. Additionally, it can persist as a state of mind- among victims and their descendants and among the inheritors of those who practiced it –long after it has formally ended. Slavery thrives in the absence of a properly functioning law enforcement system. It is often abetted by police and other authorities. Without adequate enforcement of existing laws and the strengthening of legal frameworks, contemporary slavery operates with impunity.
Excessive Crime Growth and Lack of Management in North America
A rise in crime since 2020 has incited fears amongst North Americans. This increase is consistently attributed to the COVID-19 Pandemic and political divides. In Canada, stay-at-home orders and restrictions meant people remained at home more often and fewer people went out publicly, reducing the opportunity for various types of crime like theft. Simultaneously, the pandemic increased our usage of the internet, increasing the risk for different types of criminal activities related to the internet. The number of police-reported hate crimes in Canada increased by 37% during the first year of the pandemic, rising from 1951 incidents in 2019 to 2669 in 2020. On the contrary, in the United States, violent crime (which consists of robbery, murder, assault, and rape) was up by 3% in 2020. The rise in homicides has occurred parallel to a recent rise in overall violence, hate, tensions, political divisions and anger displayed in communities across the country.
North Korea Nuclear Disarmament
North Korea withdrew from the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons treaty in 2003, conducting their first nuclear test in 2006. The Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons treaty's goal is the promotion of peaceful uses of nuclear energy and the further development of the achievement of complete nuclear disarmament. Since 2006 North Korea has developed a multitude of nuclear weapons and ballistic missiles, while the condemnation of most western nations falls on deaf ears. The country brazenly tests their nuclear weapons with most recent test happening late January 2022, and many western nations see their continuous testing and creation of nuclear weapons as a rising threat. Despite numerous efforts since 2006, including strategic meetings with North Korea on the topic of eventual denuclearization the country continues to build up their nuclear weapons store. While Kim Jong Un has often committed to denuclearization, these commitments rarely come to fruition. Main stakeholders include North Korea, the Russian Federation, the United States of America, China and France. Questions to consider include, Is continuing talks with North Korea on nuclear disarmament worthwhile? Are these talks enough to curb the growing threat of North Koreas nuclear store? What more can be done to achieve denuclearization of North Korea?
The region of Kashmir located in the Himalayas and primarily bordering China, India and Pakistan has been hotly contested since before India and Pakistan gained independence in 1947. According to the Partition Plan provided in the Indian Independence Act, the region can accede to either Pakistan or India. The then rule of the region, Hari Singh initially planned for Kashmir to become an independent state, but after invasions by Pakistani tribesmen in 1947, joined India in return for protection. A war soon broke out, and while the UN interceded, the peace did not last. With another war in 1965 and 1999, the region is now claimed by both India and Pakistan in parts. Different parts of the region are claimed by different countries, India administered Kashmir and Pakistan administered Kashmir. Since then constant rebellions, revolts and conflicts have occurred within both divided areas of the region. Many scholars have found evidence of extensive human rights abuses in both regions, although primarily the Indian region. In a 2007 poll 87% of those surveyed who lived in the Kashmir region wished to gain independence rather than fully integrate into either Pakistan or India. Despite constant promises and talks between both India and Pakistan on peace within the region, no talks have been made towards substantial or lasting peace. Main stakeholders include India and Pakistan. Questions to consider include: Should Kashmir be allowed to fight for independence? How can a sustainable solution be agreed upon between India and Pakistan? Should India or Pakistan face repercussions for the human rights abuses committed within the regions?
Creating a Larger Range of International Trade for the Region
To manage a substantial and functioning union, a collaborative range of trade should be integrated within the region of the Caribbean and Latin America. Although many Caribbean and Latin American Nations engage in international importation and exportation with unions such as the European Commission and with America, recent cases display a lack of internal resource management and exchange. Considering the smaller territorial considerations and limitations from many Caribbean nations, substantial difficulty in trade is integrated through rough trade routes, resource competitiveness and market exploitation. Recent cases show an exponential 2-3% decrease of importation and exportation within local territories, and with higher intentions from ECLAC's Executive Secretary to ensure higher favorable economic strengthening, many other variables including COVID-19 have augmented many of the various limitations.
Ensuring Proper Economic Conditions in LAC Nations
In recent years, economic growth and improvements to societal systems and issues in Latin America has been slow. A high percentage of the population live in poverty, and many individuals who participate in the economy are unemployed. The absence of economic and social advancement was further exacerbated by the COVID-19 pandemic, and the already low economic growth rate is expected to decrease from 6.2% in 2021 to 2.1% in 2022. Education and employment have been negatively impacted by the pandemic, and this is expected to restrict economic production in the future. Furthermore, the response to the pandemic has increased institutional and personal debt, potentially hindering the ability to promptly and sustainably adapt to the new economic conditions. Alicia Bárcena, the Executive Secretary for ECLAC, identified two issues contributing to slow economic growth in the region, minimal investment and economic productivity in the region. How can the member states collaborate to address the underlying issues of slow economic growth, including lack of investment and economic productivity?
Political and Territorial Instability in the Arctic
Geopolitical instability is an ongoing issue, due to the sheer size and environment of the Arctic. However, the possible new gains in undiscovered marine resources and territories have influenced world powers into expanding into the Artic, for the previously mentioned reasons. This yearn that governments have for expansion, along with the fact that much of the territory in the Artic is undisputed and undefined, has caused for much conflict and debate, specifically in territorial claims. The main stakeholders in this issue are Russia, the Nordic countries, the USA and Canada.
Space Debris and Preventing Satellite Damage
There are hundreds of thousands of pieces of space debris flying around the orbital paths of satellites. Most of the debris ranges from being just millimeters in size to about the size of a softball. However, due to the fact that the debris moves in extremely high speeds (approximately 15,700 miles per hour in low Earth orbit), they are very hazardous for satellites. The debris originates from waste produced by satellites, as well as due to previous satellite collisions. For example, on Feb 10, 2009, a non-active Russian satellite crashed with the US' Iridium commercial spacecraft, causing for over 2,300 large pieces of debris to be released into orbit. The large pieces of debris are trackable, however small ones aren't, meaning they also pose a considerable threat to the safety of satellites. Due to the dangers posed by this debris, it is important to figure out how to limit collisions with these objects and satellites, as this can pose an economic and safety threat.
League of Nations
Disarmament in Germany
Soon after the signing of the Treaty of Versailles, Germany suffered extensively in economic and political conditions from their territorial sacrifices, financial reparations and societal humiliation. After inconsiderate decisions were made by relative allied powers, including Britain, France, United States and to an extent, Italy, disarmament conditions in Germany have been beyond recognizable and humane, limiting their humanitarian status for German citizens and their military. In addition, extreme financial reparations have had significant impact towards Germany's economic tolerability, limiting functionality and exhibiting humility. This therefore expresses a stronger desire to strike back from German perspective, through thoughts and expressions of Nazism and Fascism, something that can likely cause a second war. After witnessing a national collapse in Germany, delegates of the League of Nations must manage their exponential amendments to not only the Treaty, but to their own national demands to ensure a functioning political system in Europe, as well as mitigating the rise of German forces during their times of political and economic crisis during times of intensive political influence in other regions of Europe including communism, fascism and socialism.
United States Disengagement from the League of Nations
An ideological visualization of a peaceful world must begin from international collaboration and engagement. On January 8th, 1918, Woodrow Wilson depicted his 14 points regarding specific considerations and regulations for ensuring world peace, ending with the formation of a collaborative and integrational societal league that would discuss and manage international and territorial disputes with diplomacy. However soon after, after interchangeable perspectives and decisions were held within various other independent nations, the United States, on behalf of the congress, decided to withdraw their initial position in the League of Nations. Congress deemed their reasoning for this rejection to include not wanting American affairs to interfere to an extent with international affairs that were deemed "unnecessary" for their political view. This left not only instability within the League of Nations, but severely impacted the political reputation held by the United States. With the withdrawal being a considerable dispute within the League of Nations, delegates must discuss their positional impact towards the League of Nations. Important questions to consider may include how the rise of Fascism, Nazism, Socialism and Communism are significantly impacted from the withdrawal and how the American Congress' decision directly interferes hypocritically with their initial intent.
Some background guides are awaiting completion. Those that have been completed can be found below.
All positions papers must be submitted through the button on the right before the first committee session on the day of the conference (April 23, 2022). Completing your position paper is mandatory for you to be considered for an award. Please name your file COMMITTEE_DELEGATION.
If you are unsure how to write a position paper refer to this document.
Below can be found the zoom links for the opening and closing ceremonies as well as all committee sessions for ACMUN XVII:
Meeting ID: 966 124 1923
Meeting ID: 817 530 8319
Meeting ID: 474 576 6348
https://applebycollege.zoom.us/j/5221650707?pwd=a0w4alVvck9tYUFSNll5WHYzMXZGQT09 Meeting ID: 522 165 0707 Passcode: 304008
Meeting ID: 557 601 5796
Meeting ID: 371 023 4051
League of Nations
Zoom ID: 214 487 8816