ACMUN XIV was a great success and the Planning Committee would like to thank all the delegates and teachers who helped to create such an amazing conference. We hope to see you all again this year!
Stay tuned for the ACMUN XV conference happening in April 2020!
- What is ACMUN?
- Committee Descriptions
- Committee Topics
- Background Guides
SECRETARY GENERAL - SAWSAN HAIDER
Hi everyone! I am Sawsan Haider, the Secretary General for the ACMUN XV Conference of 2020. I was born in Montreal, Canada, have lived in Bahrain for two years, and later moved to Oakville where I live now. I have been an Appleby College student since grade 7 and have attended ACMUN every year since. I’ve been debating for the last 5 years and have found my home in MUN. I am one of the coordinators of AC Debate and have recently won 1st place in debate at the National Public Speaking Championship. I have been a delegate to many MUN conferences, including SSUNS and multiple ACMUNs. I am fascinated with our international framework and the political interactions that make up our world and am passionate about using this understanding to change the world and would love to help those in the conference that are looking to the same.
CHARGE D'AFFAIRES - ANNA LIU
Greetings delegates! Welcome to ACMUN! My name is Anna Liu and I am your Charge D’affaires for the ACMUN XV Conference of 2020. I was born in Zhengzhou, China, and I moved to Canada when I was five. My Model UN journey started in grade 9 when I joined the club for fun. Since then, it has been a big part of my life, and I absolutely love traveling to various places in the world to attend conferences and making long-lasting friendships. I’ve been a MUN Club Secretariat member for two years now, and I’ve attended conferences like ACMUN, SSUNS, and VMUN. I am passionate about world politics and international relations, and I also value the skill of public speaking. I look forward to seeing delegates come up with amazing solutions to world crises. See you all in April!
UNDER SECRETARY GENERAL OF CRISIS - CHLOE OH
Hello delegates! My name is Chloe Oh and I am the Undersecretary General of Crisis for ACMUN XV. I am incredibly excited for this year's conference and is very grateful to work with a wonderful group of the ACMUN team! I was born in Seoul, the capital city of South Korea and moved to Canada when I was thirteen. So far, I have travelled to three different continents and is currently capable of speaking four different languages. I am passionate to meet new people and experience new cultures; this is one of the many reasons why I love being in a part of the MUN family. In previous years, I have participated in former ACMUN conferences and have competed in various debate tournaments. Such experiences have allowed me to approach global issues in multiple different perspectives. Personally, I believe that ACMUN XV will also be an eye-opening experience to solve global issues in an innovative way:) I can't wait to see you all in April!
UNDER SECRETARY GENERAL OF COMMITTEE AFFAIRS - OYKU UZUN
Hello everyone! My name is Oyku Uzun and I am the Undersecretary General of Committee Affairs for ACMUN XV this year. I was born in Ankara which is the capital city of Turkey and I am currently a grade 12 student at Appleby College. I have always been passionate about traveling and experiencing new cultures while following the current global events. This was the major reason why I decided to join the Model UN club in grade 8 in my previous school back in Turkey and this has made a drastic difference in my life and my approach to the current events. I have been to several conferences throughout my MUN career which let me to look at things from different perspectives and to meet new people from all around the world. In my opinion, Model UN is a great platform which students get the chance to learn more about the world that we all share together and to think of ways to make it a better place for everyone while meeting new people who share common interests with them. I am so glad that I am a part of this amazing conference and extremely excited to meet with all of you delegates in this year’s conference in April!
UNDER SECRETARY GENERAL OF FINANCE - ELLA VAN AKKOOI
My name is Ella van Akkooi, and I am the Under Secretary General of Finance of this year. This has been my third year with ACMUN and I am very excited for the conference of 2020. I was born in the Netherlands and lived there till the age of 9. Then I moved to Singapore and lived there for 3 years, after that I lived in Texas for 3 years and Melbourne Australia for 9 months after all these moves, I moved to Canada and will be graduating from Appleby College in June 2020. I am passionate to join the planning and preparation with the wonderful ACMUN team to plan of the conference this year. My team and I will put in our full effort and passion to make this the best ACMUN conference yet. One interesting fact about me is that my father has worked at the UN (that might be his interesting fact), and that I learned English at the age of 14. I spend most my summer back in my hometown and am hoping to attend university back home next year. I am very passionate about business and have created a business recently as a start-up, additionally have attended a conference at Harvard for women leaders in business. I also volunteer every Thursday at a small elementary with low income families serving breakfast and that shaped me as a person to always provide the best work produced. This work ethic will be displayed in my team this year and I am looking forward to meeting all you and hope you all have the best experience at the ACMUN conference of 2020. Can’t wait to see you all there!
UNDER SECRETARY GENERAL OF LOGISTICS AND OPERATIONS - AVERY SWAMY
Hello everyone! My name is Avery Swamy and I am the Under-Secretary General of Logistics and Operations for this year's conference. I was born in Oakville, Ontario and have lived here my whole life, except for one year that I got the opportunity to live in England. I have been at Appleby since grade seven, and although I have only been part of the ACMUN co-curricular for two years, I have enjoyed every moment of it. I have a strong passion for organizing and teamwork, so the Logistics and Operations team is right where I belong. As a secretariat member this year, I am very excited to contribute in making the conference this year as enjoyable as possible and look forward to meet all the delegates! Hi everyone!
UNDER SECRETARY GENERAL OF MARKETING - HANSI SATIJA
Hi everyone! My name is Hansi Satija and I am the Undersecretary General of Marketing for ACMUN XV this year, and I am so excited to meet you all! I was born in St. Catherine's, Canada and I moved to Oakville when I was 8 years old. I am currently a grade 12 student at Appleby College, and I have been a part of the media team for ACMUN since grade 9. I have really enjoyed the past couple of years being a part of ACMUN, and I am looking forward to being a part of ACMUN this year. I love taking pictures and getting to know people from different areas in the process. I really like the ACMUN experience as you are able to meet people who are interested in the same topics as you, and you get to meet a variety of different people. I am passionate about experiencing new cultures, service, and understanding how I can play my part to better our world. I am thrilled to be able to play my role within the ACMUN XV conference this year to make sure this conference is as incredible and engaging as it can be. See you all in April!!
What is ACMUN?
Appleby College Model United Nations began fifteen years ago as thirty students huddled in a music room debating world affairs on Saturdays. Over the past years it has grown into one of Canada's premier single day high school conferences, run entirely by student volunteers and attended by hundreds of students eager for high quality debate.
The organizing committee of the Appleby College Model United Nations conference is committed to delivering an experience in keeping with the international spirit of the United Nations. It aims to raise awareness of pressing global issues and to have delegates consider how they can change the world around them though being community spirited and globally responsible.
2005 – 2006 ACMUN I
2006 – 2007 ACMUN II
2007 – 2008 ACMUN III
2008 – 2009 ACMUN IV
2009 – 2010 ACMUN V
2010 – 2011 ACMUN VI
2011 – 2012 ACMUN VII
2012 – 2013 ACMUN VIII
2013 – 2014 ACMUN IX
2014 – 2015 ACMUN X
2015 – 2016 ACMUN XI
2016 – 2017 ACMUN XII
2017 – 2018 ACMUN XIII
2018 – 2019 ACMUN XIV
2019 – 2020 ACMUN XV
Chinezimuzo (Nezim) Mmegwa
Arthur Kwan Hung Wu
ACMUN XV SCHEDULE - SATURDAY, APRIL 4, 2020
9:00-10:00 Opening Ceremony with Guest Speaker (Single Gym)
10:20-12:00 First Committee Session
12:00-1:00 Lunch (Dining Hall)
1:00- 3:00 Second Committee Session
3:15-5:00 Third committee session
5:10-6:30 Closing Ceremony (Single Gym)
9:00-10:00 Opening Ceremony with Guest Speaker (Single Gym)
10:20-12:00 First Committee Session
12:20-1:20 Lunch (Dining Hall)
1:20- 3:00 Second Committee Session
3:15-5:00 Third committee session
5:10-6:30 Closing Ceremony (Single Gym)
9:00-10:00 Opening Ceremony with Guest Speaker (Single Gym)
10:20-12:40 First Committee Session
12:40-1:40 Lunch (Dining Hall)
1:40- 3:00 Second Committee Session
3:15-5:00 Third committee session
5:10-6:30 Closing Ceremony (Single Gym)
Main Phone: 905-845-4681, ext. 0
Address: 540 Lakeshore Road West, Oakville, Ontario L6K 3P1
Since ACMUN's inception, Appleby College's pillars of community spirit and global responsibility have remained at the heart of our core values. As a team, we are dedicated to creating a conference in which delegates have the opportunity to translate diplomacy into concrete actions. Recognizing the importance of incorporating philanthropy and service into our conference, ACMUN is delighted to inaugurate our annual initiative of philanthropic partnership during the twelfth year of our conference.
UNICEF Canada – ACMUN XV Official Charity Partner
ACMUN XV is excited to announce our support for UNICEF Canada for this year’s conference! The United Nations Children's Fund is an international humanitarian organization that promotes the rights and wellbeing of every child in 190 countries and territories around the world. UNICEF Canada translates the commitment made by the Convention on the Rights of the Child into practical action, focusing special efforts on reaching the most vulnerable and excluded children, to the benefit of all children, everywhere. Through focusing on child protection, social inclusion, child survival, education, gender equality, and emergency relief, UNICEF advocates for measures to give children the best start in life.
Our fundraising theme this year is youth education. Through our fundraising efforts, we look forward to support UNICEF’s “strong commitment to ensure that all children – regardless of gender, ethnicity, socioeconomic background or circumstances – realize their right to a quality education.”
It is our time to reach out to children around the world; it is our time to rebuild the future for tomorrow's generation; it is our time to respond to the challenges this world presents us. On behalf of ACMUN and UNICEF Canada, we would like to thank you for your generous support! With our collective efforts as global citizens, we will create a brighter future with hope for our children!
|WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (WHO)||
|SOCIAL, HUMANITARIAN, AND CULTURAL COMMITTEE (SOCHUM)||
|UNITED NATIONS HUMAN RIGHTS COUNCIL (UNHRC)||
|UNITED NATIONS DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM (UNDP)||NOVICE|
UNITED NATIONS ENVIRONMENT PROGRAM (UNEP)
SPECIAL, POLITICAL, AND DECOLONIZATION COMMITTEE (SPECPOL)
|UNITED NATIONS EDUCATIONAL, SCIENTIFIC AND CULTURAL ORGANIZATION (UNESCO)||NOVICE|
UNITED NATIONS CHILDREN FUND (UNICEF)
UNITED NATIONS ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL COUNCIL(ECOSOC)
UNITED NATIONS EMPOWERMENT OF WOMEN (UN WOMEN)
DISARMAMENT AND INTERNATIONAL SECURITY COMMITTEE (DISEC)
|UNITED NATIONS ECONOMIC AND FINANCIAL COMMITTEE (ECOFIN)||INTERMEDIATE|
PARIS PEACE CONFERENCE
SECURITY COUNCIL (UNSC)
UN CONVENTION ON BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY
|INTERNATIONAL COURT OF JUSTICE||SPECIALTY|
Social, Humanitarian, and Cultural Committee (SOCHUM)
The Social, Humanitarian and Cultural Committee is the third general assembly of the UN, tasked with a broad mandate surrounding social, humanitarian, and human rights issues from around the world. Some issues discussed within SOCHUM include but does not limit to global literacy, children's rights, women's rights, the treatment of refugees and displaced persons, which summarize into one topic: human rights. SOCHUM also works closely with many other UN bodies in order to effectually address its mandated issues.
Special, Political, and Decolonization Committee (SPECPOL)
The Special Political and Decolonization Committee, also known as UN General Assembly Fourth Committee, is one of the United Nations General Assembly's six main committees. All the UN countries are eligible to join. The committee focuses on decolonization efforts, but they also deal with other controversial political missions, including peacekeeping, human rights, Palestinian refugees relief, etc.
Originally, the committee started as the Fourth Committee that dealt only with decolonization issues. But after more territories became self-governing, it merged with the Seventh Committee, or the Special Political Committee to form the SPECPOL.
United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO)
UNESCO’s mission is to contribute to the building of a culture of peace, the eradication of poverty, sustainable development and intercultural dialogue through education, the sciences, culture, communication and information. The Committee is responsible for the implementation of the World Heritage Convention, defines the use of the World Heritage Fund and allocates financial assistance upon requests from States Parties. It has the final say on whether a property is inscribed on the World Heritage List. It examines reports on the state of conservation of inscribed properties and asks States Parties to take action when properties are not being properly managed. It also decides on the inscription or deletion of properties on the List of World Heritage in Danger.
United Nations Development Program (UNDP)
The United Nations Development Programme works in 177 countries and territories, helping to achieve the eradication of poverty, and the reduction of inequalities and exclusion. The UNDP helps countries to develop policies, leadership skills, partnering abilities, institutional capabilities and build resilience in order to sustain development results. This is a critical time for the world. The UNDP sees this period as a huge opportunity to advance the global sustainable development agenda. In September 2015, world leaders adopted the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development to end poverty, protect the planet, and ensure that all people enjoy peace and prosperity. The UNDP is working to strengthen new frameworks for development, disaster risk reduction, and climate change. The UNDP supports countries' efforts to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals, or Global Goals, which will guide global development priorities through 2030.
United Nations Environment Program (UNEP)
The United Nations Environment Programme is a United Nations body which leads the United Nations environmental agenda in its 2030 Sustainable Development mission. The UNEP provides the leadership and expertise the world's nations need to protect the environment through informing, inspiring, and enabling countries to do so. UNEP Assembly is a group of countries which the world's highest level decisions regarding the environment. UNEP is headquartered in Nairobi Kenya but has regional headquarters in every continent. The UNEP encourages sustainability through work done around climate change, disasters and conflicts, resource efficiency, chemical waste, environmental governance, and ecosystem management.
World Health Organization (WHO)
The World Health Organization formed in 1948 and based its headquarters in Geneva, Switzerland. It incorporates the former Office International d'Hygiène Publique and League of Nations Health Organization. It is a specialized UN agency that focuses on global health challenges, public health, emerging health issues, and finding a solution. After contributing to eradicating smallpox, WHO is now focused on preventing HIV/AIDS, Ebola, TB, reproductive diseases, etc. It organizes World Health Day, which promotes collective action in protecting public health. It also organizes that global health campaigns, including Immunization Week, Tobacco Day, World AIDS Day, etc.
United Nations Human Rights Council (UNHRC)
The United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees is a global organization overseen by the UN, dedicated to saving lives and protecting human rights by assisting refugees and building a collectively better life for these individuals, their communities and forcibly displaced people. They work to ensure that an individual fleeing persecution, violence, war or disaster at their home country is able to find a safe place for refuge. Since 1950, when the UNHCR was established in 1950 to support millions of displaced Europeans after WW2, the organization has been committed to their goal of facing multiple crisis all over the world and providing essential and integral assistance to refugees, asylum seekers, internationally displaced, and stateless people who have nowhere to go.
United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF)
Standing for the United Nations Children's Fund, the program has worked and is continuing to work in 190 different countries and territories across the globe. As the world is constantly changing many children's needs are not. As this continues UNICEF Promotes the rights and well being of every child making sure there rights are protected. Over the past 70 years UNICEF is constantly improving lives of children and their families despite momentous challenges.
United Nations Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC)
ECOSOC, one of the six main organs of the United Nations established in 1946 is designed to create a platform in the United Nations for the discussion of international economic and social issues. The Committee conducts studies and formulates resolutions according to these to coordinate the activities of various UN organizations. ECOSOC is the principal body for coordination, policy review, policy dialogue and recommendation of the internationally agreed development goals in the economic, social and environmental fields.
United Nations Empowerment of Women (UN Women)
UN Women is a United Nations entity which works with UN member states to empower young girls and women around the world and pursue gender equality. It does this through working with governments to provide their expertise as they create laws, governmental policies, and services regarding equality. The committee often works around encouraging economic empowerment, ending gender-based violence, political activism, humanitarian support, HIV and AIDS reduction, and pursuing the United Nations 2030 Sustainable Development Goals. The United Nations Entity for Gender Equality and the Empowerment of Women, or UN Women, was created by the UN General Assembly in 2010 to consolidate fragmented efforts to push for the empowerment of women.
Disarmament and International Security Committee (DISEC)
Founded after the Second World War in 1945, the Disarmament and International Security Committee, DISEC, combats global problems, disarmament, and menaces of international peace. Confronted with problems like the promotion of terrorism through media platforms and the use of unmanned aerial vehicles, DISEC explores potential solutions to international security problems. This committee will provoke excellent discussion on how to solve some of the world's most imminent problems.
United Nations Economic and Financial Committee (ECOFIN)
The Economic and Financial Committee (Ecofin), currently at its 73rd session, deals with conflicts and issues regarding economic growth and development. Delegates emerge from Ecofin committees with a thorough understanding of the mechanisms of the global economy and the forces in which shape the systems that control our world. Ecofin, being one of the original general assemblies since its creation in 1945 is also known as the Second Committee and covers a jurisdiction of concepts from economic growth and development and its intrinsic mechanisms like international trade, financial systems, debt and employment sustainability, the financial intricacies of development, human settlements, poverty, and sustainable development. It focuses on everything from globalization and the rise of neo-liberalism to how to encourage financial growth in underdeveloped countries. In its history, Ecofin has been the backbone to helping nation-states out of financial crisis into an era of growth and thriving. More specifically, Ecofin has played a key role in the Israel Palestine conflict and had come to the conclusion that Israeli occupation is a violation of human rights laws due to the economic impact that the political, military, and social interventionism has caused on the Palestinian people.
The European Union is a political and economic union consisting of 28 member states that are primarily located in Europe. The main goal of the European Union is to strong political and economic relationships among its countries. EU policies aim to ensure the free movement of people, goods, services and capital within the internal market, enact legislation in justice and home affairs and maintain common policies on trade, agriculture, fisheries and regional development. The members represent the EU at international summits, organizations, and negotiations.
UN Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD)
The Convention on Biological Diversity is a subsidiary body on science suggested elements of the science base to be used in next year's biennial UN Biodiversity Conference taking place in China that will include discussions on an ambitious, transformative and effective post-2020 global biodiversity framework. UN Convention on Biological Diversity has the three main goals including the conservation of biological diversity, the sustainable use of its components and the fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising from genetic resources. Its overall objective is to encourage actions, which will lead to a sustainable future
Paris Peace Conference, 1919
The Great War has just ended, and the central powers have been defeated by the Entente and its allies in a costly and exhaustive conflict. The scale of such a war is unprecedented, and its global manifestation has left few regions untouched. The losers now face the horrid task of negotiating an unsettling peace agreement with the victors, in what will be known as the Paris Peace Conference. History awaits to see what terms will be agreed upon, as anger and vengeance seem to dominate the upcoming discussion. The question of reparations, demilitarization and territorial concessions may serve to humiliate Germany and its losing allies, and the final document produced in the end shall determine if Europe is to remain divided or united.
The primary responsibility of the Security Council is to maintain international peace and security through decisions made by the 15 members. The Council mainly analyzes and determines the existence of a threat to peace or any aggressive actions. They then come up with peaceful adjustments in order to settle the threat and reassure the world of international peace and security. Besides its crucial role in global peace and actions against possible threats, it works with the General Assembly to select new members of the United Nations. It also chooses the judges of the International Court of Justice (ICJ).
The Ad Hoc Committee is a unique crisis committee that is structured for advanced delegates eager to debate and act on their feet. To maintain ambiguity in the committee, the topic will not be revealed until you walk into the committee room. The only information given about this committee is that intelligence agencies are involved, and so each delegate will have to research about different intelligence agencies and their protocols. Ad Hoc delegates will have to act instantaneously and effectively to crises as they have had minimal time to react. Preparation is still necessary as delegates need to be confident speakers and should be ready to converse.
Harry Potter committee is a special crisis committee that aims to ensure the safety of wizards and magical beings to create harmony and peace in the magical world by preserving the law. In this committee, the expectations form the delegates is to discuss the matters revolving around the life at Hogwarts and to find possible solutions for these issues. The main objective of this committee is to come up with proposals to maintain peace and order within the wizarding world to promote justice and equality for all.
International Court of Justice (ICJ)
The International Court of Justice (ICJ) is the fundamental juridical structure of the United Nations (UN). The Court's role is to make decisions in accordance with the International Law and to guide the United Nations organs, the international organizations and specialized agencies by giving them advices on legal questions by again, referring to the International Law. The International Court has been carrying its critical decision making process since it was first established in June 1945 and began its actions in April 1946.
SOCHUM – Social, Humanitarian and Cultural Committee
1. Human Rights Violations in Refugee Camps:
The goal of a refugee camp is to provide a temporary settlement and basic necessities to refugees. However, often within the refugee camps, there can be concern of human rights violations. For example, some human rights that may be of concern include the right to freedom of movement, right to a name and nationality, and access to education. Within a camp, it is common to see the mixing of different ethnic, religious, political, and social groups which can result in human rights violations towards certain individuals and groups. This is a major issue since often these human rights violations are overlooked and the individuals are extremely vulnerable and have no say in their treatment.
2. Inequality of Education within Developing Nations:
Internationally, there has been significant effort put into improving education for both children and adults. Within the sustainable development goals set by the UN general assembly, the fourth goal is ensuring quality education. Although there has been considerable progress, 263 million youth are out of school around the world. Inequality of education in developing nations is an extremely prevalent issue since this inequality leaves a large number of students with limited opportunities as they grow older, and leaves them at a significant disadvantage to those students who have access to an adequate education. Hindering sustainable social and economic development is another effect of the inequality of education within developing nations.
SPECPOL – Special, Political, and Decolonization Committee
1. Regulating Illegal Activities at International Boarders:
Illegal activities across international borders envelopes a variety of social, political and economic activities prevalent at international borders and peacekeeping operations established to mitigate and regulate these ongoing conflicts. Some of the conflicts discussed by the special, political, and decolonization committee includes drug trafficking, international tax evasion, black markets across borders, human trafficking and terrorism. Different ways to stop or reduce these on goings are discussed in the SPECPOL committee.
2. Reforming Peacekeeping Operations:
The main priority of peacekeeping operations is to assist disputing countries in forming long lasting peace. It has become an effective tool to maintain tranquility and security throughout its existence. However, as of late the demands for peace have increased in volume and complexity. This has resulted in the program not keeping up with demand, and has hindered unreliable, slow, and inadequate service across the globe. Political solutions have become lackluster in focus, and in clear priorities which trigger fatalities and injuries of peace.
UNESCO - United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization
1. Preserving World Heritage Sites Located in Indigenous Reserves:
Many cultural and natural World Heritage sites are home to indigenous people. World Heritage Sites are often located within land managed by indigenous people whose knowledge, cultural, spiritual values are related to their heritage. The UNESCO policy on engaging the indigenous people along with the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous People (UNDRIP) seek to encourage the identification, protection and preservation of cultural and natural heritage around the world. This problem is becoming increasingly significant in today's society as the rights of the indigenous people and protection of world heritage sites come into spotlight.
2. Addressing Education Barriers that Women in the Middle East Face:
When women are educated, they are more inclined to be politically active and be vocal about certain social and economic issues. Women in the Middle East have higher illiteracy rates compared to the rest of the world. When women are deprived of education it affects them and the countries they live in tend to be less economically developed. The power of patriarchy in the Middle East trivialises women and denies them of their fundamental human rights. In comparison to the global average, women’s lack of education in the Middle East is a major, consequential concern. Poverty plays a crucial role in the lack of women’s education.
UNDP - United Nations Development Program
1. The Role of Access to Clean Water in Eradicating Poverty:
The link between water and poverty is inevitable. According to the World Health Organization, safe water means water that is suitable for drinking, cooking, bathing, cleaning and accessible from a source less than a kilometer away. From local farmers to larger agriculture corporations and service industries, it can be seen that safe water is relied on by all businesses. As well as water being necessary for the business itself, it is also extremely important for the health of workers. Those who don't have access to clean water find themselves vulnerable to many water-borne diseases, which keep them out of the workforce, and thus, stuck in a cycle of poverty.
2. Efficient Utilization of Traditional and Renewable Energy Sources to Achieve Sustainable Growth:
55% of the world's population lives in cities, and by 2050, two thirds of the worlds entire population will be living in urban areas. If we want to stop climate change and become more environmentally friendly, it is crucial that we create sustainable cities and transportation. This goal can be achieved by creating career and business opportunities, safe and affordable housing, and building resilient societies and economies. It involves investment in public transport, creating green public spaces, and improving urban planning and management in participatory and inclusive ways. Special attention should be payed to developing nations because in the upcoming decade, 90% of urban expansion will be in developing nations and 9/10 mega cities will be in the developing world.
UNEP – United Nations Environment Program
1. Investing in Climate Technology Projects in Developing Countries to Accelerate the Transfer:
Developed countries are becoming further reliant on technological solutions towards climate change, and play a critical role in effective responses. According to the U.S. Energy Information Administration carbon emissions in developing countries will become 127 percent greater than developed countries. If these developing countries can convert to climate technologies the effects will significantly decrease. In March 2015, UN member states including Canada agreed to implement the 2030 Agenda and the accompanying Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). The Climate Action goal - SDG Goal 13 - calls on the international community to take urgent action to combat climate change and its impacts. To achieve SDG 13, all countries will need to make efforts to accelerate and intensify their actions and investments on climate change.
2. Increasing Awareness in Rural and Underdeveloped Communities about Climate Change by Implementing Climate Change Action into Education System:
Climate change is an apparent worldwide epidemic, and millions of people are enlightened on the varying actions necessary to improve the situation every day. Despite this, members of the rural region and underdeveloped countries still require further education on the issue. Their lack of knowledge results in these countries having a substantial carbon footprint on the earth, yet they have little knowledge on how to improve the situation. Education encourages the changes in attitude, and actions towards climate change will help citizens further act and mitigate on climate related trends. Thus, implementing climate change action into the education system and increasing awareness about climate change is highly called for in rural areas and underdeveloped nations.
WHO – World Health Organization
1. Increasing Health Coverage with Emphasis on Third World Countries and Refugees:
More people are on the move more than ever before. There are estimated 1 billion migrants in the world today. The rapid increase of population movement has important public health implications, and therefore requires an adequate response from the health sector. Ratified international human rights standards and conventions exist to protect the rights of migrants often lack access to health services and financial protection for health. As most of the displaced populations are migrating away from under developed and developing countries, this creates an unbalance between places in terms of their populations. The lack of Universal Health Coverage can lead to excessive costs for the refugees and migrants and the population movement poses epidemiological and health system challenges. Adding on, the lack of health infrastructure in Third World Countries and for the refugees, is an important concern for the United Nations as the 2030 SDGs recognize the positive contributions of refugees and migrants for inclusive growth and sustainable development.
2. Addressing the Global Threat of Cholera and Eradication of Cholera Through Vaccines (OCV):
Research estimates that each year, there are 1.3 million to 4.0 million cases of cholera, and many deaths worldwide due to cholera. These numbers show how crucial this topic and addressing this issue is in order to achieve a safe and a healthy environment for all . After the global strategy on cholera control by 2030, with a target to reduce the deaths by 90% was launched in 2017, many improvements have been made in this area and in order to overcome this disease. In 2014 the Global Task Force on Cholera Control (GTFCC) was also revitalized with its secretariat based at WHO. Other than these two steps, WHO has also developed a set of Cholera Kits in order to ensure efficient and effective deployment of necessary materials for the investigation and confirmation of cholera outbreaks. As the United Nations and WHO continues to work on solving this vital problem that effects many communities and countries, the urgency of the situation becomes more evident.
UNHRC - United Nations Human Rights Council
1. Loss of Human Rights in Conflicts Across the Middle East (Loss of Palestinian Rights in Israel):
In the 1970s, the locus of human rights shifted to non-governmental organisations (NGOs) that used human rights to pressure their own governments for change. Activists created organisations promoting the rights of prisoners, leftists, Islamists, dissidents, women, and the poor. Human rights became more threatening to Middle Eastern regimes that were overwhelmingly undemocratic. States had little tolerance for institutions that could challenge them and often responded violently. Although widespread violations continue to happen, human rights have become an important framework across the region. Most states now address human rights concerns in response to domestic and international pressure. Rights have increasingly become the language of popular protest and were one of several ways that people articulated grievances before and during the uprisings in several Arab countries in 2011.
2. Developing a Global Action Plan to End Statelessness (Rohingya Crisis in Myanmar):
Around the world, millions of people are left without a nationality or a state where they can call home. The individual is not regarded as national by any state, and these stateless people are frequently denied education, healthcare, jobs, and the freedom of movement. It is caused by discrimination on the bases of race, spaces in nationality laws, and the emergence of new states and borders. These unfortunate citizens can experience a lifetime of difficulty, and therefore requires further development of a current Global Action Plan to abolish statelessness. The plans goals include resolving existing major situations, ensuring no child is born stateless, removing gender discrimination from nationality laws, granting protection to stateless migrants, and ensuring the birth registration.
UNICEF - United Nations Children Fund
1. Compulsory Education for Migrating Children and Refugees:
As a fundamental right for all, education is now a primary concern for migrating children and refugees. As a result of deficient education systems or lacking resources available for immigrating children, the right of education is overlooked and the necessary attention is not given to this crucial issue. Especially after the refugee movement in 2015-2016, when the refugee numbers in the world reached to its peak, the issue of providing the necessary education is now more urgent than ever. Refugee students are a particularly vulnerable group due to their forced displacement, but their needs are not always met by education systems, which can harm not only their academic success but their social and emotional well-being as well. For this reason, it is highly essential to create the circumstances for migrating children and refugees so that they also have access to compulsory education.
2. Combatting the Issue of Child Recruitment by Armed Forces or Armed Groups with Specific Focus on Central Africa:
Between 2012 and 2015, more than 10,000 children were exploited by armed groups in Central Africa. Child trafficking is when children are put to work, often in unsafe conditions, and are unwillingly taken away from safety. Children in developing nations are forced into labor, recruited as soldiers, and sexually exploited. As well as being a significant human rights violation, child trafficking and labor has significant consequences on economic development. As children are forced into the armed forces or armed groups, they are prevented from receiving a formal education. Along with the short term affects, often, after the children are released or have escaped, they are not accepted back into their communities or are not able to reunite with their families.
ECOSOC - United Nations Economic and Social Council
1. Addressing Inequalities and Challenged to Social Inclusion Through Fiscal, Wage and Social Protection:
In 2015, the 193 countries of the UN General Assembly adopted the Sustainable Development Goals. Efforts have been made by all stakeholders to implement these goals and make it possible by 2030. Indeed, a lot of progress has been made during these past five years, but gaps in equality still remain in the society. People in rural and suburban areas, people with disabilities, mental health problems, or HIV/AIDS are especially vulnerable to unfair treatment and opportunities. Government programs often neglect to offer adequate services, such as education and health care, to these groups of people. Thus, it is more pressing than ever for countries to commit to closing these gaps in equality and to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals.
2. Rethinking the Global Food Economy Towards Sustainable Food Production and Distribution:
With approximately 1 in 9 people going hungry each day in the world, it is clear that we must change the way we produce and distribute food. Currently, processes like farming, processing, packing, transporting, and agriculture-related deforestation account for about half of all human greenhouse gas emissions, but more than one third of all food produced is wasted rather than consumed. Thus, it is more pressing than ever to improve the global food ecosystem and economy. Government and social organizations are in the driving seat of promoting this change, to encourage efforts in overcoming hunger and food insecurity which will make profound ripple effects in other pressing global challenges as well.
UN Women - United Nations Empowerment of Women
1. Women's Political Empowerment and Leadership:
Gender equality lies at the core of human rights and is the foundation for achieving sustainable development. Women are often excluded from the political arena, despite representing half of the world's population. Increasing women's participation and leadership are vital for women in supporting them to realize and embrace their basic rights. It has been proven that women's involvement in leadership and decision-making is highly beneficial for economic and social development around the world. Longer exposure to women’s political representation increases women’s overall labor force participation, the share of public employment opportunities allocated to women, and women’s access to public amenities.
2. Combatting Women and Girl Violence:
Around the world, 35% of women have experience either physical, sexual, or mental violence at some point in their lives. Evidence shows that these women are vulnerable to high rates of depression or acquiring HIV. Violence against women and girls is based on gender discrimination, social norms, and gender stereotypes that perpetuate as violence. Given the devastating effect violence has on women, efforts have mainly focused on responses and services for survivors. However, the best way to end violence against women and girls is to prevent it from happening in the first place by addressing its root and structural causes.
DISEC - Disarmament and International Security Committee
1. Foreign Interventions in Civil War (Kosovo war, NATO intervention):
A civil war is a war between organized parties within the same state or republic. Foreign involvement in a Civil War refers to political, military, logistical, diplomatic and operational support to parties involved in the War from foreign countries. Ever since its creation, the UN has often been called upon to prevent disputes from escalating into war, help restore peace when armed conflict occurs, or promote long-term peace in societies emerging from wars. However, sometimes countries interfere with civil wars without approval from the United Nations, such as the Kosovo War, and cause massive amount of damage under the name of "R2P (Right to Protect)." Delegates need to determine a solution to determine whether foreign intervention is needed and what makes foreign intervention justified.
2. Lethal Autonomous Weapons:
Lethal Autonomous Weapons (LAWs) are a type of autonomous military robot that can independently search for targets can engage in attack with little to no human involvement at all. These weapons are based on programed constraints and descriptions of target. However, LAWs are considered to be as dangerous as weapons of mass destruction, since they are programmed to follow only AI. This means that these weapons lack the ability to feel any sort of pathos. Stuart Russell, a professor of computer science from University of California, Berkeley stated the concern regarding LAWs inhuman and unethical nature due to its inability to distinguish between combatants and non-combatants, which could lead to a misjudged attack. In 2015, over 1,000 experts in artificial intelligence signed a letter warning against the threat of killer artificial intelligence and called for the ban of autonomous weapons. The letter was presented at the 24th International Join Conference on Artificial Intelligence at Buenos Aires.
ECOFIN - United Nations Economic and Financial Committee
1. Banking Policies for Avoiding Global Rescissions:
A global recession is an extended period of economic decline around the world. The causes of a recession often revolve around high interest rates, reduced consumer confidence, rising of oil prices, inflation, failure in federal leadership, and many other factors that contribute to the plunge in economic health. With global recession risks increasing, it is important that banks are able to prevent the next downturn. In order to avoid global recessions, banking policies must be structured around taking preventative methods. Possible policies include cutting interest rates, increasing government spending financed by borrowing, and maintaining customer confidence in banking systems through ensuring financial stability.
2. International Efforts to Combat Money Laundering:
Money Laundering is the process of hiding the origin of illegally obtained money in attempts of the launderer to make the money seem legitimate. It is most often associated with crimes that produce significant revenue. Resulting in a corrupting effect on all elements of society, the main issue with money laundering is that it transfers economic power from citizens, the market, and the government to criminals. Although many governments, working alongside the Financial Action Task Force (FATF), have established anti-money laundering regimes, there is an estimated $1 trillion laundered globally every year.
1. Operation Peace Spring:
Turkey has been diplomatically and militarily involved in the Syrian Civil War since it started in 2011. Since then, Turkey's involvement has gradually increased from an initial condemning of the Syrian government and unrest to military assistance and active conflict. The most recent conflict occurred in October, 2019, when the Turkish Armed Forces (TAF) and the Syrian National Army (SNA) conducted a cross-border military operation against the Syrian Democratic Forces (SDF) and the Syrian Arab Army (SAA) in northeastern Syria. The Turkish Air Force launched airstrikes on border towns, and the conflict resulted in the displacement of over 300,000 people and has caused the death of more than 70 civilians. Many cases of human rights violation have also been reported.
2. The Situation in Yemen (Saudi Arabia and Yemen):
The Yemen Civil War is an ongoing conflict that began in 2015. The two major sides in battle are the Yemeni government led by Abdrabbuh Mansur Hadi and the Houthi armed movement along with their supporters and allies. Both parties claim to constitute the official government of Yemen. Currently, the Houthi forces control the capital of Yemen, Sana'a. The conflict is widely recognized as an extension of the Iran and Saudi Arabia proxy conflict and as a mean to combat Iranian influence in the region. However, this conflict has led to hundreds of thousands of deaths, and millions are left starving and homeless. In 2018, the United Nations warned that 13 million Yemeni civilians face starvation in what it says could become "the worst famine in the world in 100 years." It is now more urgent than ever to come up with solutions and restore peace to the nation.
International Court of Justice
1. Application of the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide (the Gambia v Myanmar):
Brought to the ICJ by Gambia on behalf of the organization of Islamic Cooperation, the case of Gambia vs Myanmar is about whether Myanmar is guilty of committing genocide, and whether they have fulfilled their duty of preventing and punishing the crime. Focusing on the Rohingya community, this case looks into the crimes against this group that are considered an ethnic and religious minority in the country and that have faced persecution from many arms of the state. It is one of the many efforts put towards holding Myanmar accountable for their heinous actions against the Rohingya Muslims. The goal of the case is to encourage the government and the military to take responsibility to fulfill their responsibilities of preventing and punishing the crime under international law.
2. Certain Iranian Assets (Islamic Republic of Iran v. US):
On June 4, 2016, Iran brought to the ICJ an application against the United States, asserting that the United States has taken measures against Iran and Iranian companies that violated the rules of the 1955 Treaty of Amity, Economic Relations, and Consular Relations between Iran and the United States. In its application, Iran claims that the United States has failed in cases brought by victims of terrorism to accord Iran and Iranian state-owned companies, and that the US has failed to recognize the legal separateness of Iranian state-owned companies. Iran specially points out to case no. 10-CV-4518 as the primary example of the United States' violations of the treaty.
1. Post-Brexit Budget:
Sajid Javid, the Finance minister of Britain, has announced that the British government will hold a budget on 6 November, less than a week after a possible no-deal departure from the European Union. In an attempt to ramp up pressure during 11th-hour Brexit talks and as an election looms, the chancellor said the set-piece tax and spending event would be the first since the UK left the EU. The U.K.’s impending exit means that the bloc will lose one of its key net contributors — when a country’s payments into the EU outweigh its revenues from it. This is set to leave a shortfall of about 7.8 billion pounds ($10 billion) every year, in net terms, in the EU’s next budget. As a result, the question of who will fill that gap is stressing out several member states.
2. The Rise of Illiberal Democracy:
An illiberal democracy is a governing system where citizens are unaware of activities of those within their government system. The rise of illiberalism has amassed concern among members of the European Union. From the censorship of media to hostile takeovers to the judiciary, the rise of an illiberal democracy has spread through Europe and brought countries closer to an authoritarian regime. The rise of illiberal democracy particularly stands in two main EU member states: Hungary and Poland. In these countries, governments are turning away from a constitutional democracy and implementing a completely new political model that represents the ideas of an illiberal democracy.
UN Convention on Biological Diversity
1. Use of Animal Testing in Biomedical Research:
Animals have long been used as experimental tools for biomedical research, but their use for the advancement of scientific knowledge remains a contentious issue. In the past, investigators use animals to learn about the most widespread diseases of the age, including heart disease and cancer, as well as to gain basic knowledge in genetics, physiology, and other life sciences. Animals are also needed to develop vaccines to combat new diseases. However, many argue that the benefit of animal testing to humans does not justify the suffering of animals in laboratories. As a result, alternatives to animal testing became an active area of inquiry and discussions. Laws have been passed in several countries to make the practice more "humane," but millions of animals still sacrifice their lives each year in the name of scientific knowledge.
2. Regulations on the Use of GMO Animals / Plants:
Since 1974, when Jaenisch created the world's first genetically modified animal, GMO's have been on the rise significantly around the world. In 2017, 80% of all soybeans, 77% of all cotton and 33% of all corn worldwide was genetically modified. In the 1980s, when deliberate releases of GMOs to the environment were beginning to occur, the U.S. had very few regulations in place. The regulation of GM corps in America is divided among three regulatory agencies: the Environmental Projection Agency (EPA), the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), and the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA). EPA regulates biopesticides, including Bt toxins, under the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA). FDA is responsible for regulating the safety of GM crops that are eaten by humans or animals.
Paris Peace Conference
1. How Should Post World War Germany be Treated?
It is 1919 and the end of the Great War was marked by the signing of the armistice. It is now time to address and discuss what needs to be done regarding the global economy, world peace, and of course, Germany. The Paris Peace Conference, also known as the Versailles Peace Conference, was the meeting between leaders of the Ally countries to set the peace terms for the defeated Axis powers. However, state leaders disagree about how to treat post-war Germany. Should we punish Germany? Should we make Germany pay for all war costs? Or should we help Germany as well as other European countries equally to re-establish world order and assess the viability of peace? Delegates need to consider numerous factors, such as sanctions and collective security, to come up with a plan to restore world order.
2. Creation of the League of Nations:
Much discussion occurred during the period after the Great War, and one of the most lasting areas of such discussion revolved around efforts in creating and promoting international peace. The League of Nations, an international organization headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland, was created as a result of the discussion proposed by President Woodrow Wilson of the United States as a part of his Fourteen Points plan. In order for the organization to achieve its goals in regard to promoting international peace and preventing wars, delegates must first consider the functionality, technicality, and internal structures of the league. Delegates should also consider the objections and values of their own character in terms of making binding commitments or subjecting their country to punitive measures by the league.
1. Battling Against the Half-Blood Discrimination:
In the wizarding world a social caste system is set into place determined by ones "purity" in blood. The four major levels of blood purity are muggles, mud bloods, half bloods and pure bloods. A muggle is a person with absolutely no magic or in other words, a completely normal person and are not even acknowledged by most wizarding families. A mud blood is a person whose parents are muggles but they themselves are a wizard and they are considered disgraceful to other wizards. Half-bloods are wizards with some family that are muggles and although they are discriminated against as much as mud bloods, they are considered inferior to pure bloods. Pure bloods are considered to be the highest class of wizards and are superior to everyone else. They often get leadership roles in the ministry as well as other benefits while the other people face discrimination, prejudice and scorn.
2. Protecting the Rights of House Elves in the Wizarding World:
Being extremely loyal to the family the work for, house elves are taken advantage of and mistreated by their masters. Because how loyal they are house elves are abused and mistreated and are given not a single basic right as they are often regarded as creatures without feelings or emotions. Although later on in 1996 a set of regulations was passed by the British ministry of magic to mitigate the harsh treatment of house elves, the families that owned house elves before the law still mistreat their house elves and the elves continue to live in a harsh environment and are treated as slaves.
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Special, Political, and Decolonization Committee - Chair: Amber Smuts Click here for email
United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization - Chair: Ashley Liu Click here for email
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